The constable, Gospatric, son of Orm and grandson of Gospatric, a Scottish Earl, was fined five hundred marks for surrendering.  Some existing motte-and-bailey castles were converted to stone, with the keep and the gatehouse usually the first parts to be upgraded. The castle is surrounded by a vast and beautiful park which is an integral part of this remarkable castle. Kenyon, p.4, citing King (1972), pp.101-2.
The Medieval Fortress: castles, forts and walled cities of the Middle Ages.  These urban castles could make use of the existing town's walls and fortification, but typically required the demolition of local houses to make space for them.
Henry II regained Appleby and confirmed the grant to the younger Hugh de Morville – one of the knights who later murdered Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. An interesting addition is the Falconry Centre offering flight demonstrations using various birds of prey, including eagles, falcons, hawks, and vultures. In late spring, International Festival of Ghosts and Spooks take place. The castle features a central courtyard, and there are rounded and square towers, originally built for defense. Castle was owned solely by Mrs Nightingale – the first female owner since Lady Anne Clifford. Public enquiry into plans for development of the castle.  Contemporary accounts talk of some mottes being built in a matter of days, although these low figures have led to suggestions by historians that either these figures were an underestimate, or that they refer to the construction of a smaller design than that later seen on the sites concerned. Meulemeester, p.105; Cooper, p.18; Butler, p.13. Nowadays the castle is open for visitors, it has three museums, and the impressive great hall is available for events and receptions. Thomas, 8th Lord Clifford, undertook major building works at the castle, reconstructing the great hall, kitchen, chapel, great chamber and other main rooms in the eastern range and building square towers at either end of the range. Lady Anne began the restoration of Appleby Castle, inserting a cross-wall in the keep and adding the corner turrets. "Twelfth Century Great Towers - The Case for the Defence".
Lady Anne Clifford died at Brougham Castle. Many of Europe’s medieval castles are iconic and easily recognized, while others are off the beaten path.  The early 12th-century chronicler Lambert of Ardres described the wooden keep on top of the motte at the castle of Ardres, where the "first storey was on the surface of the ground, where were cellars and granaries, and great boxes, tuns, casks, and other domestic utensils. During the low tide, the island can be reached on foot, and hundreds of tourists visit each day.
Even though not technically a castle, it would be difficult for anyone to deny its magnificence.  Instead of single ditches, occasionally double-ditch defences were built, as seen at Berkhamsted.
The unique design of the castle will seem like something featured in Game of Thrones to most, but in reality, this 15th-century castle is one of the best examples of Spanish Mudejar brickwork. (2003) "Charter Evidence and the Distribution of Mottes in Scotland," in Liddiard (ed) (2003a). The first records of a castle built in the mountains date back to 1147.
 Some were also built over older artificial structures, such as Bronze Age barrows. He escaped execution but his lands were forfeited.  Very little skilled labour was required to build motte and bailey castles, which made them very attractive propositions if forced peasant labour was available, as was the case after the Norman invasion of England. The ascetic and fortress-like octagon facade features elements from classical antiquity, the Islamic Orient and north European Cistercian Gothic. The first castle, probably a wooden structure, was first mentioned in records around the second half of the 13th century.  Some mottes could be square instead of round, such as at Cabal Trump. However, not all fit this description, and Castel del Monte in Southern Italy certainly stands out.  The word "bailey" comes from the Norman-French baille, or basse-cour, referring to a low yard. Castle was sold to Ferguson International plc who used it as their headquarters.  Unlike Wales, the indigenous Irish lords do not appear to have constructed their own castles in any significant number during the period. (2004), King, D. J. Cathcart.  In Flanders, decline came in the 13th century as feudal society changed. George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, died leaving estates to his brother the 4th Earl. Romans built a signal station on the cliff overlooking the ford on the River Eden, close to the road from York (Eboracum) to Carlisle (Luguvallium). De Morville supported a rebellion by Henry’s son, who allied himself with the Scots. King Edward II was overthrown and succeeded by his son King Edward III.
King William Rufus of England occupied Cumbria and installed Ivo Taillebois as first Norman Lord of Westmorland. Despite its defense structure, its function was only to be the seat of the Challant family.
(2002) "Fortifications de terre et résidences en Normandie," in. , Newer castle designs placed less emphasis on mottes.  The size of mottes varied considerably, with these mounds being 3 metres to 30 metres in height (10 feet to 100 feet), and from 30 to 90 metres (100 to 300 ft) in diameter.
, A small number of motte-and-bailey castles were built outside of northern Europe. The Medieval Castle in England and Wales: a social and political history. Its location historically was a strategic point controlling the crossing of River Nore. Construction of a Benedictine abbey begun in the late 10th century. Just like many other medieval castles, Vianden Castle lies on top of a hill overlooking the town of Vianden. The castle and tower were recorded by Jordan Fantosme in his chronicle, showing both were present. As intended in its purpose, the castle had an extensive defense system. Civil War flared up and the castle was occupied by a Parliamentary army under the Regicide, General Thomas Harrison. Even though it was built in the second half of the 13th century, the castle was expanded during Renaissance, then rebuilt into a Baroque castle.
The castle features a large and imposing structure with tall towers, bastions, an inner courtyard, diversely colored roofs, and rows of windows and balconies decorated with stone carvings.
(1996) "Norwegian medieval castles: building on the edge of Europe," in, Héricher, Anne-Marie Flambard.
The scenery surrounding the island is everchanging as the tides of the bay can recede quickly, revealing a completely different view.
Most people will immediately think of Dracula and Transylvania. The awe-inspiring island located where Normandy and Brittany meet is otherworldly and unique.  Layers of turf could also be added to stabilise the motte as it was built up, or a core of stones placed as the heart of the structure to provide strength. Purton, pp.195-6; Collardelle and Mazard, pp.71, 78; Jansen, p.195; Kaufmann and Kaufmann, p.110. (1982) "Les mottes castrales et l'évolution des pouvoirs dans le Alpes du Nord.  The first of these was the establishment by the new king of royal castles in key strategic locations, including many towns. King John gave the Barony of Westmorland, including the castle, to his henchman Robert de Vipont, nephew of Hugh de Morville, whose family held it for 100 years. Lady Anne Clifford married Richard Sackville, Earl of Dorset. There has been some debate over the absence of indigenous Irish castle building.
Lepage, p.35; Collardelle and Mazard, pp.72-3. Few places in the world are as magical as the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay in France.
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