The sense of commitment to students exhibited by Heeks is a legacy of the early-days DOAS, of Arthur Livingstone and old colonial administrators who came back to Manchester to educate the officials from the newly independent countries. The educational dimension always came first. Annual newsletter of the University of Manchester. Says Hulme: The support for students and the efficient organisation of teaching is one of the key challenges with which David Hulme, the Executive Director, and Diana Mitlin, the Managing Director of the GDI, have to grapple. It was a vital part of the training, and an opportunity to forge close bonds between students and staff; bonds that survived decades and often served as the basis for successful future cooperation. ‘Cadbury invests 45 million in sourcing Fairtrade cocoa Accessed: 27 June 2018. Interview with Jayne Hindle, 24 May. With the growing number and influence of academics, during the late 1980s and most of the 1990s, IDPM slowly re-orientated itself towards the classical academic model, where teachers were also researchers. The GDI, the newest incarnation of DOAS , DAS IDPM and BWPI, is not only a research centre. Great Promise, Hubris and Recovery: A Participant's History of Development Studies - John Harriss, 3. ‘Minutes of the Institute’s Board Meeting’ (unpublished), 3 February 1999. The second reason for IDPM to move towards more standard, academic forms of university teaching was the change in the makeup of the Institute and the growing pressure from the University to ‘professionalise’. In the first years of the new Millennium IDPM consolidated its strengths in teaching and research. Annual newsletter of the University of Manchester. She remembers the stir caused by one of the projects she co-ran with Bill Cooke: Kothari refers to their book, Participation: The New Tyranny?, which challenged the widespread, and ‘fashionable’ to quote its blurb, dogmas about participation. Finally, there is the very narrow and very deep impact the Institute has on the individual lives of its master and PhD students, on people who are formed in Manchester and go out to the world to change it through their daily work and effort. More importantly, she also revolutionised DfID spending. Clarke (1999, pp 526, 522) describes Livingstone – “the doyen of directors of overseas development centres in the UK” – as a singularly focused individual who, often in adverse conditions, managed to build a stable and well-established department. Initially, the majority of staff members had practical experience of teaching in the colonies but they were not researchers. Researchers from the centre examine the role of the state and the impact of elites in an effort to determine how best to promote inclusive development (ESID, 2018). Described as a ‘larger than life’ figure, Short revolutionised the way her new Department operated. With the aid of the Rory and Elizabeth Brooks Foundation’s generous funding it had built an extensive support infrastructure. But development studies has since also taken an interest in lessons of past development experiences of Western countries. We felt so amazed. The early successes of the CPRC related not only to the fact that it was recognised at the highest levels of government. Reilly remembers how important this was for one of his students, who noted that “this visit to Greece has given me hope. First, the staff at the IDPM started to realise that short courses were simply not the best approach possible. ‘Institutions for training overseas administrators: The University of Manchester’s contribution’. The second major aspect of IDPM’s work in the 1990s was consultancy. Manchester: Brooks World Poverty Institute. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant.  Development studies arose as a result of this, initially aiming to integrate ideas of politics and economics. IDPM (2000b). Previously as part of the VUM, the Institute enjoyed a significant degree of autonomy. IDPM (nd). For example, Colin Kirkpatrick, one of the two IDPM staff who by that time already boasted the title of professor, ran the Finance and Development Research Programme, which started in 1992 (IDPM, 2001b). Hulme reminisces: Richard Heeks, now a Professor of Development Informatics who in the 1990s focused primarily on teaching, explains that it was getting harder to convince a professional with a stable career to leave work and family for 12 weeks and come to Manchester for a course that did not offer any formal qualification. Clarke notes that in the 1970s there were only “two or three staff” who regarded themselves as academics, as opposed to trainers. Concern over development has been with us for as long as people have existed, for it is fundamentally about... Evolution. They acknowledged that poverty, inequality and underdevelopment are not unique problems of the ‘poor South’ but are universal global issues affecting, to different degrees, deprived communities in both the North and the South (Horner and Hulme, 2017). The new Institute boasts a critical mass of researchers capable of producing world-changing research. More recently, the emergence of human security – a new, people-oriented approach to understanding and addressing global security threats – has led to a growing recognition of a relationship between security and development. With the complaints that “[s]taff within the more teaching-intensive parts of IDPM have also struggled to carve out the time required to sustain their research activities” (IDPM, ‘UMRI Final’, nd, p 4), this was an important issue. Kothari explains that the same spirit spread throughout IDPM. Funded by DfID it is a partnership of 16 organisations from Europe, North America, Africa and Asia. Stephanie Barrientos’ project, ‘Socio-economic Mapping of Cadbury Cocoa Chocolate Value Chains,’ the ‘Effective States and Inclusive Development Research Centre’, and Armando Barrientos’, David Hulme’s and Joseph Hanlon’s book Just Give Money to the Poor: The Development Revolution from the Global South were some of the influential and interesting projects run by Manchester academics at that time. The expectation that IDPM and institutions like it would become research centres as well as education centres emerged gradually during the 1990s with the RAE, the predecessor of the Research Excellence Framework (REF), having a growing impact on British Universities. At the same time, the number of students on postgraduate programmes, Master’s and Diplomas, continued to grow (IDPM, 2000a). Hulme mentioned that the researchers from the CPRC were ready to challenge the most widespread ideas about poverty reduction. How does it make sure that its programme is driven by the need to catalyse development and not to generate income? By the 1960s, an increasing number of development economists felt that economics alone could not fully address issues such as political effectiveness an… The academics found support in the changing environment at the University. It benefited from Hulme’s research that found microfinance was not an effective approach to helping the poorest of the poor. Its mission was to produce knowledge that created practical changes in the lives of people in the developing countries. From the 1990s, it led to a revaluation of their approach to teaching when the short professional training courses that had thus far constituted the core of the Institute’s programme, became less significant and postgraduate teaching was prioritised. ‘Taught master’s courses’ Accessed: 27 June 2018. Kothari, U. Interview with Willy McCourt, 10 May. London, ActionAid. Clarke, R. (1999). Towards the end of the 1990s there were only two professors at IDPM. Pluto Press. That aims to improve the lives of people living in low income communities across the globe. ‘Minutes of the Institute’s Board Meeting’ (unpublished), 7 February 2001. Currently, it offers 20 different Master’s programmes on topics varying from ‘Development Finance’ through to ‘Global Urban Development’ and ‘International Development: Poverty, Conflict and Reconstruction’.  In recent years the use of political economy analysis- the application of the analytical techniques of economics- to try and assess and explain political and social factors that either enhance or limit development has become increasingly widespread as a way of explaining the success or failure of reform processes. Banks explains that the work of the communications team not only helped her to disseminate her research but also allowed her to see her work in a new light. It stays faithful to the mission present at Manchester since the inception of the University’s Development Studies programme, the mission to foster change in societies and countries via education. (Zed Books, 2001, with B. Cooke) and Development Theory and Practice: Critical Perspectives (2002, with M. Minogue). Says Imran Matin, one of BRAC’s directors and a long-term collaborator with IDPM/GDI: However, influential research was only becoming a priority for IDPM in the early 1990s. Hulme and Barrientos were among the first to demonstrate the effectiveness of these types of support programme, encouraging significant additional investment from both donors and national governments.
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